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in-pool - متافیزیک در فلسفه چیست؟

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متافیزیک در فلسفه چیست؟

اصولا به جستجو و پژوهشی که در باب زندگی و چیستی و جهان به عنوان یک کل پرداخت می شود، متافیزیک می گویند. در واقع مابعدالطبیعه یا همان متافیزیک برای استناد به دو عامل مورد استفاده است که یکی درباره طبیعت بنیادین واقعیت و اصول بنیادینی که می تواند پایه ای برای طبیعت آن واقعیت به حساب آید، بحث می کند و مفهوم دیگر متافیزیک؛ اکتشاف چیزی که شرایط ضروری برای برخورداری ما از هرگونه تجربه در حالت کلی را ایجاد می کند.

البته واژه متافیزیک از سری کتاب های 14 گانه ارسطو استخراج شده است و به دلیل اینکه ارسطو کتاب های فلسفی اش را پس از کتاب فیزیک اش نوشته است و باور شاگردانش هم اینگونه بوده ابتدا باید کتاب های فیزیک مطالعه شود تا آمادگی لازم برای مباحث فلسفه ارسطو حاصل شود، نام این علم متافیزیک قرار داده شده که به معنی بعد از فیزیک است و البته نباید با علوم فیزیک اشتباه شود. همچنین نباید فراموش کنیم که متافیزیک هیچ ارتباطی با علوم ماوراءالطبیعه ندارد و در مورد علب وجود موجودات و جهان می پردازد.

شاید اشکالی که در فهم واژه متافیزیک برای فارسی زبان ها به وجود آمده از ترجمه عرب زبان ها بوده که کتاب فیزیک ارسطو را «الطبیعه» و مجموعه متافیزیک ارسطو را «ما بعد الطبیعه» ترجمه کرده اند که معنی «بعد از علوم طبیعی» را می دهد که این ترجمه درستی نیست چرا که متافیزیک بخشی از علم فلسفه است که که در هر دو بخش آن یعنی «متافیزیک قدیم» و «متافیزیک نوین» به مباحث فلسفی اشاره دارد و ارتباطی با علوم ماوراءالطبیعه پیدا نمی کند. متافیزیک را به عنوان ریشه فلسفه می شناسند چرا که اولین فیلسوفان عالم معمولا به مباحث متافیزیک پرداخته اند و در زمان معاصر معمولا آن دسته از فیلسوفان که به مرز محدودیت های تفکر متافیزیکی دقت و مطالعه بیشتری دارند، فیلسوفان متافیزیکی انتقادی هستند.





نوشته شده در : سه شنبه 5 آبان 1394  توسط : love stroy.    نظرات() .

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